Chapter 3 : Lab 3.2.5 Observing the Router Startup Process

Task 1: Observe and Examine the Router Startup Process

Step 1: Connect and set up the router

a. Referring to the topology diagram, connect the console (or rollover) cable to the console port on the

router and the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and router.

b. Establish a HyperTerminal or other terminal emulation program connection to the router.

Step 2: Restart the router and observe the output

a. From the privileged EXEC prompt, issue the reload command. Confirm the reload when prompted.

b. Observe the output as the router restarts.

Output similar to this will be displayed.

POST information:

System Bootstrap, Version 12.4(13r)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)

Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport

Copyright (c) 2006 by cisco Systems, Inc.

PLD version 0×10

GIO ASIC version 0×127

c1841 platform with 131072 Kbytes of main memory

Main memory is configured to 64 bit mode with parity disabled

Locating and Loading information:

Readonly ROMMON initialized

program load complete, entry point: 0x8000f000, size: 0xcb80

program load complete, entry point: 0x8000f000, size: 0xcb80

program load complete, entry point: 0x8000f000, size: 0xd4a9a0

Self decompressing the image :

#################################################

#######################################################################

################# [OK]

Smart Init is enabled

smart init is sizing iomem

ID MEMORY_REQ TYPE

0X003AA110 public buffer pools

0X00211000 public particle pools

0X0013 0X00035000 Card in slot 0

0X000021B8 Onboard USB

If any of the above Memory Requirements are

“UNKNOWN”, you may be using an unsupported

configuration or there is a software problem and

system operation may be compromised.

Allocating additional 7692243 bytes to IO Memory.

PMem allocated: 117440512 bytes; IOMem allocated: 16777216 bytes

Restricted Rights Legend

Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is

subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph

(c) of the Commercial Computer Software – Restricted

Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph

(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer

Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

cisco Systems, Inc.

170 West Tasman Drive

San Jose, California 95134-1706

Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-IPBASE-M), Version 12.4(1c),

RELEASE SO

FTWARE (fc1)

Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport

Copyright (c) 1986-2005 by Cisco Systems, Inc.

Compiled Tue 25-Oct-05 17:10 by evmiller

Image text-base: 0x6007ECA0, data-base: 0×61480000

Port Statistics for unclassified packets is not turned on.

Cisco 1841 (revision 7.0) with 114688K/16384K bytes of memory.

Processor board ID FTX1118X0BN

2 FastEthernet interfaces

2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) interfaces

DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.

191K bytes of NVRAM.

31360K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write)

Step 3: Examine the router startup output

The startup process has three stages:

a. Performing the POST and loading the bootstrap program

Examine the output displayed. Look at the highlighted section in the sample output in this lab that

relates to the POST. Mark any differences between your observed output and this sample.

What are possible reasons for these differences?

OS yang berbeda file, perangkat yang berbeda, dll

What does the POST test in the router?

Hardware

If the POST is successful, what is loaded into RAM?

The bootstrap program

What is the purpose of what is loaded into RAM?

Locate the Cisco IOS and load it into RAM

What would happen if the POST is unsuccessful, and what could this mean?

IOS tidak akan memuat dan router tidak akan berjalan

b. Locating and loading the IOS software

Examine the displayed output. Look at the sample output in this lab that relates to the IOS loading.

Mark any differences between your observed output and this sample.

What are possible reasons for these differences?

OS yang berbeda file, perangkat yang berbeda, dll

What are the three possible locations of the IOS?

Flash memory, TFTP server, lokasi yang ditentukan di file konfigurasi startup (lokasi jaringan)

How is the IOS location to be used specified?

Konfigurasi nilai register

The confreg program is available to decode configuration register values. It can be downloaded from

Academy Connection Tools. From Tools, select the CCNA Curriculum (not CCNA Discovery or CCNA

Exploration), and then select any v3.1 course. Click Cisco Configuration Register Decoder to

download the program.

After it is installed and executed, the program displays the binary and hexadecimal values of the

register that set the different router startup sequences and console communications.

What will be the result if an IOS image cannot be located and loaded?

Modus ROMON dimasukkan

c. Locating and executing the startup configuration file or entering setup mode

Examine the displayed output. Look at the sample output in this lab that relates to the startup

configuration loading. Mark any differences between your observed output and this sample.

What are possible reasons for these differences?

OS yang berbeda file, perangkat yang berbeda, dll.

What is the output if the router does not have a configuration to load?

— System Configuration Dialog —

Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]:

What is displayed if a startup configuration is loaded?

User EXEC prompt

Step 4: Clean up

Erase the configurations and reload the router. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are

normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), delete the IOS image file from the TFTP directory, reconnect the appropriate cabling, and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Task 2: Reflection / Challenge

Prepare a troubleshooting checklist based on the router startup stages and the hardware and software

features associated with each stage. Format the checklist so that if it is noted that a stage was unsuccessful, the possible problems can be readily identified. For example, for “IOS not loaded” enter “ROMON prompt displayed.” Prepare a second checklist listing possible router faults or problems. For example, “no cooling fan sound,” “LEDs not illuminated or showing unusual behavior,” or “unexpected ROMON prompt displayed.” For each problem listed, enter the stage of the router startup process that failed.

 

Lab 3.3.2 Determining the Router Hardware Options

Task 1: Inspect a Cisco 1841 ISR

Step 1: Physically inspect the external features of the router

Examine the router. In the table below, identify and match each item number in the figure with the description. In addition, record the number of each interface and port on the router with the description.

Is a module installed in Slot 0? No

How many Fast Ethernet interfaces does the router have?

2

WIC-2T two serial interfaces

Is a module installed in Slot 1?

No

Which of the modules and ports have the potential to be upgraded to improve the router’s

capabilities?

Slot 0 dan Slot 1, flash card slot

 

Step 2: Use IOS show commands to inspect the router

a. Referring to the topology diagram, connect the console (or rollover) cable to the console port on the

router and the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and router.

b. Establish a HyperTerminal or other terminal emulation program connection to the router.

c. From the privileged EXEC mode prompt of the terminal, issue show run and show flash:

commands.

Record the number and type of interfaces. Typical results are shown.

interface FastEthernet 0/0

interface FastEthernet 0/1

interface Serial 0/0/0

interface Serial 0/0/1

interface VLAN1

Record the details of the memory (DRAM, flash) modules.

Flash 32 MB

SDRAM 128 MB

Step 3: Compare the physical and IOS inspections

Are there any differences between the physical and IOS inspections?

No

Observed differences could be due to the IOS having features implemented in the software that do not have the hardware module installed, or loopback interfaces may be configured.

If an installed hardware interface does not appear in the configuration, it may be faulty or may not be correctly installed. In some cases, slots must be filled consecutively; in other cases, certain module types can only be installed into specified slots.

Task 2: Examine 1841 Router Hardware Options

After establishing the current hardware status of the router, examine the technical documentation to

determine the potential for upgrading and growth.

Step 1: Access the Cisco.com documentation

a. Go to the website http://www.cisco.com.

b. In the Quick Links pane on the right, select Documentation.

c. Under Select a category, click Routers. Under Select a product, click the Cisco 1800 Series

Integrated Services Routers link.

d. Review the documentation links displayed.

e. Under Product Literature, click the Data Sheets link. Note the range of data sheet documentation

available.

f. Click Cisco 1800 Series Integrated Services Routers: Cisco 1841 Router (Modular).

Step 2: Record the router hardware information

a. Read through the Cisco 1800 Series Integrated Services Routers: Cisco 1841 Router (Modular)

document, noting the structure and format of the information.

b. From Table 1, Architecture Features and Benefits of Cisco 1841 Router, record the following

information:

The number of different modules and interface cards that are supported: >30

Default memory capacity:

32 MB of flash and 128

MB of synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM)

Cisco IOS versions supported:

12.3T, 12.4, 12.4T

Feature Sets and Beyond

c. From Table 5, Product Specifications of Cisco 1841 Router, locate and record the following

specifications from the Architecture section.

d. From the Table 6, Modules and Interface Cards the Cisco 1841 Router Supports, list the 10

different categories of interface card (WIC) supported by the 1841 platform.

e. From Table 6, what feature does the Advanced Integration Module (AIM) enable to be installed in an

1841 router?

VPN encryption

Step 3: Consider possible hardware options

The 1841 ISR has removable and interchangeable modules. Various optional modules can be installed in the router to provide specific capabilities. These modules are installed either by inserting them into slots on the chassis, or by opening the chassis and plugging them into connectors inside.Flash memory and interface cards fit into slots on the chassis and are installed and removed without opening the chassis.

There are three types of interface cards for the 1800 series modular routers:

  • • WAN interface cards (WICs)
  • • Voice WAN interface cards (VWICs – in data mode only on the Cisco 1841)
  • • High-speed WAN interface cards (HWICs)

The following components plug into connectors inside the chassis and are installed and removed only by

opening the chassis:

  • • Advanced Integration Module (AIM)
  • • Synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) small-outline dual in-line memory module (SODIMM

Summarize the changes that are possible for this router. This information is important to have and consider when planning and designing the network upgrade.

If the router is not at its limit of these features, candidates for upgrading could include:

Flash memory (if larger IOS required)

SDRAM

Slot 1 Ethernet switch 4-port module

Slot 1 WIC-2T – 2 serial interfaces

Slot 1 Other WAN technology DSL/ISDN

Step 4: Clean up

Erase any configurations and reload the router. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are

normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Task 3: Reflection

Network device capabilities are continuously developing. Consider the advantages of a modular platform over that of a device with a fixed hardware platform.

Modularitas memfasilitasi kustomisasi perangkat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan jaringan lokal.
Peningkatan dan penggantian modul mengurangi biaya dan waktu dari layanan.
Perangkat Modular menyediakan desain jaringan yang fleksibel dan scalable.



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