Chapter 7 : ISP Service

Lab 7.3.1 Editing the HOSTS File in Windows

Step 1: Locate the HOSTS file in Windows

a. Click the Start button and choose All Programs > Accessories, and then click the Notepad program.

b. In Notepad, choose File > Open. Change the Files of Type to All Files to be able to see files other than text files. Navigate to C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC.

c. Select the HOSTS file and click Open.

Step 2: Edit the HOSTS file

a. At the bottom of the HOSTS file, there is a list of hosts that have already been recorded. Add a new entry for the web server. Enter, press the Tab key, and then enter webserver1. Press the Tab key again, and add a comment preceded by a # sign. The # sign is used to signify a comment.

b. Save the updated HOSTS file.

Step 3: Test the new name mapping

a. To open the command prompt, click the Start button and then click Run. In the Run dialog box, type CMD and then click OK. Alternately, you can choose Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt to open a command window.

b. In the command prompt window, type ping webserver1 and press the Enter key. The name webserver1 was resolved to just before the subsequent echo requests were sent out. This indicates that the HOSTS file was modified correctly and is functioning correctly in the name resolution process on this workstation. Since this is a simulation and there is no real webserver1, the destination host is unreachable. If there were a webserver1 that could be reached from this host, it would most likely have replied to the ping.

Step 4: Reflection

a. Which other files are located in the \ETC folder with the HOSTS file?

(Pemetaan IP, Host name, Pemetaan web server)

b. Which character is used to comment out description text in the HOSTS file?

(Menggunakan tanda ‘#’ untuk membuat komentar deskripsi)

Lab 7.3.3.a Examining Cached DNS Information on a Windows DNS Server

Step 1: Use the Windows Server DNS Administrative Tool

a. Click Start > All Programs > Administrative Tools, and then click DNS to launch the DNS administrative tool.

b. Expand the Cached Lookups folder and all subfolders to see that there are no cached lookups.

c. Next, to verify that the server has been configured to use the Root servers on the Internet, right-click the DNS server and click Properties

d. From the Properties dialog box, select the Root Hints tab and verify the presence of the Root servers. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box.

Step 2: Perform a DNS lookup

On the DNS server, open Internet Explorer and browse to Once the web page opens, close the web browser.

Step 3: Examine the Cached DNS entries

a. Switch back to the DNS Administrative tool.

b. From the Cached Lookups root folder, click the Refresh button on the toolbar.

c. Expand all the subfolders below the Cached Lookups folder to reveal the cached DNS entries.
Notice that you now have a folder structure that expands down to Cisco. Within the Cisco folder notice the two Name Server type records, which identify the two name servers that manage the DNS zone. Also notice the Host record for www that maps to

Step 4: Reflection

a. The DNS server had to do a query to the domain name servers to resolve the server name ( to an IP address. What do you think would happen the next time this website is visited again within a few minutes?

(Maka akan ada ns3 karena alamat diakses untuk yang ketiga kalinya)

b. What would happen if there are no requests for this website for a longer period of time?

(Tidak akan terjadi apa-apa record-nya tidak akan bertambah)

Lab 7.3.3.b Creating Primary and Secondary Forward Lookup Zones

Step 1: Create a primary forward lookup zone on Windows

a. Click Start > All Programs > Administrative Tools, and then click DNS to launch the DNS administrative tool.

b. Right-click Forward Lookup Zones and then click New Zone.

c. When the New Zone Wizard displays, click Next.

d. By default, the Primary zone radio button is selected. Click Next to create a Primary zone.

e. Enter the domain name,, into the Zone name field and click Next.

f. Click Next to create a new file with this name.

g. Notice the option to enable dynamic updates. It is disabled by default for security. You will leave it disabled as well. Click Next.

h. Click Finish to create the primary forward lookup zone.

Step 2: Add a Host record to the Primary forward lookup zone

a. Right-click the forward lookup zone and choose New Host (A).

b. In the Name field type www. In the IP address field, type Leave the other settings at their default value. This creates a host named

c. Click OK

e. Click Done

Step 3: Create a secondary forward lookup zone

a. On the second Windows DNS server, launch the DNS administrative tool. Follow the instructions from Step 1.

b. Right-click Forward Lookup Zones and choose New Zone.

c. When the New Zone Wizard displays, click Next.

d. Click the Secondary zone radio button, and then click Next.

e. Type in the Zone name field, and then click Next.

f. In the IP address field, type, which is the IP address of the primary server. Then click Add..

g. Click Next.

h. Click Finish.

i. When you view the secondary zone, notice that the www host record created on the primary server has transferred down to the secondary server.

j. To verify that it is a secondary zone and is read-only, right-click the zone and notice that there is not an option to create any records.

Step 4: Reflection

What is the major benefit of having a primary and secondary DNS server in a zone?

Primary DNS server: computer menjalankan fungsi name server baerdasarkan data base yang dimilikinya

Secondary DNS server: computer menjalankan fungsi name server berdasarkan database yang diambil dari ptimary server

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